Money Management tips

Mastering your finances is a crucial skill that can lead to financial stability and independence. Effective money management is not only about earning more but also about wisely handling what you have. It involves budgeting, saving, investing, and making informed financial decisions. In this article, we will explore ten essential tips to help you take control of your finances and pave the way towards a secure financial future.

Table Of Contents

1. Take inventory of your finances

Taking inventory of your money management is an essential step towards understanding your financial situation and making informed decisions. Here are the key aspects to consider when conducting a financial inventory:

  1. Income: Begin by assessing all sources of income. This includes your salary, wages, freelance earnings, rental income, dividends, and any other money coming in regularly.
  2. Expenses: Make a comprehensive list of all your expenses. Categorize them into money management fixed expenses (e.g., rent/mortgage, utilities, insurance) and variable expenses (e.g., groceries, entertainment, dining out). Review bank statements and receipts to ensure accuracy for money management.
  3. Debts: Take stock of all your outstanding debts, such as credit card balances, student loans, personal loans, and mortgages. Note the interest rates and minimum monthly payments for each.
  4. Assets: List all your assets, including cash savings, investment accounts, retirement funds (e.g., 401(k), IRA), real estate properties, vehicles, and valuable possessions.
  5. Liabilities: Aside from debts, consider other financial obligations, such as pending taxes or any legal judgments that might affect your financial standing.
  6. Credit Score: Obtain a copy of your credit report and check your credit score. Your credit score is crucial as it affects your ability to get loans and favorable interest rates.
  7. Insurance Coverage: Evaluate your insurance policies, including health, life, auto, and home insurance. Ensure they provide adequate coverage for your needs.
  8. Savings and Emergency Fund: Analyze your savings accounts and emergency fund. Aim to have enough savings to cover at least three to six months’ worth of living expenses.
  9. Investments: Review your investment portfolio. Assess the performance of individual investments and ensure they align with your financial goals and risk tolerance.
  10. Retirement Planning: Estimate your retirement needs and evaluate your progress towards achieving those goals. Adjust your contributions if necessary.
  11. Estate Planning: If applicable, review your estate planning documents, such as wills, trusts, and powers of attorney. Make any updates based on your current circumstances.
  12. Financial Goals: Take note of your short-term and long-term financial goals. This could include buying a home, paying off debts, saving for a vacation, or planning for your children’s education.
  13. Spending Habits: Reflect on your spending habits and identify areas where you can cut back on unnecessary expenses.
  14. Financial Support: Consider whether you financially support family members or dependents and how it impacts your overall financial situation.
  15. Financial Literacy: Acknowledge your level of financial literacy and commitment to improving it. Seek resources and educational opportunities to enhance your financial knowledge.

By taking inventory of your finances, you gain a comprehensive understanding of your financial health. This knowledge empowers you to set realistic goals, create a budget, make informed investment decisions, and work towards achieving financial security and independence. Regularly review your financial inventory to stay on track and adapt to any changes in your circumstances.

2. Build a money management blueprint

Creating a money management blueprint involves developing a comprehensive plan to effectively manage your finances and achieve your financial goals. Here’s a step-by-step guide to building a personalized money management blueprint:

Step 1: Assess Your Financial Situation

Start by taking inventory of your current financial situation. Gather all the necessary information about your income, expenses, debts, assets, and investments. Understand your cash flow and identify areas where you can improve your financial health.

Step 2: Set Clear Financial Goals

Establish both short-term and long-term financial goals. Your goals should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART). Examples of financial goals include saving for an emergency fund, paying off high-interest debts, buying a home, funding education, and planning for retirement.

Step 3: Create a Realistic Budget for money management

Based on your financial assessment and goals, develop a detailed budget. Allocate your income to cover essential expenses, savings, investments, and debt repayments. Be mindful of your spending habits and make adjustments to live within your means.

Step 4: Build an Emergency Fund

Prioritize building an emergency fund to cover unexpected expenses, such as medical emergencies, car repairs, or job loss. Aim to save at least three to six months’ worth of living expenses in a separate, easily accessible account.

Step 5: Tackle High-Interest Debts

Devise a strategy to pay off high-interest debts as quickly as possible. Consider using either the snowball method (paying off the smallest debts first) or the avalanche method (paying off the debts with the highest interest rates first).

Step 6: Save and Invest Wisely

Explore various savings and investment options to grow your wealth. Consider opening a high-yield savings account, investing in stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or real estate. Diversify your investments to spread risk and aim for long-term growth.

Step 7: Maximize Retirement Contributions

Take full advantage of retirement savings accounts offered by your employer, such as a 401(k) or pension plans. Contribute enough to receive any employer matching contributions to boost your retirement savings effectively.

Step 8: Review and Adjust Regularly

Financial management is not a one-time task. Regularly review your financial blueprint, reassess your goals, and make necessary adjustments as your circumstances change. Stay disciplined and committed to your plan.

Step 9: Improve Financial Literacy

Take the time to educate yourself about personal finance and investment strategies. Attend workshops, read books, follow financial experts, and seek advice from professionals if needed. The more informed you are, the better financial decisions you can make.

Step 10: Prepare for the Unexpected

While planning is essential, life is unpredictable. Consider having appropriate insurance coverage, such as health, life, disability, and home insurance, to safeguard your finances from unforeseen events.

Step 11: Involve Family Members

If you have a family, involve them in financial discussions and decisions. Set financial goals together and encourage open communication about money matters.

Step 12: Celebrate Milestones

Acknowledge and celebrate your financial milestones. Whether it’s paying off a debt, reaching a savings goal, or achieving an investment milestone, reward yourself for your financial achievements.

But hold on.. Remember, building a money management blueprint is a continuous process that requires discipline, patience, and adaptability. Be proactive in managing your finances, and over time, you’ll gain greater control over your financial well-being and work towards a secure and prosperous future.

3. Make the most of your savings

Making the most of your savings involves maximizing their growth and ensuring they are strategically utilized to meet your financial goals. Here are some effective strategies to help you make the most of your savings:

1. Create a Budget: money management

Start by creating a detailed budget that outlines your income and expenses. By understanding your cash flow, you can identify areas where you can cut back on unnecessary spending and allocate more money towards savings.

2. Automate Savings:

Set up automatic transfers from your checking account to your savings account on a regular basis. Automating your savings ensures that you consistently set money aside without having to remember to do it manually.

3. Build an Emergency Fund:

Prioritize building an emergency fund to cover unexpected expenses. Aim to save at least three to six months’ worth of living expenses in a separate savings account. An emergency fund acts as a financial safety net during challenging times.

4. Utilize High-Yield Savings Accounts:

Consider using high-yield savings accounts that offer better interest rates than traditional savings accounts. High-yield accounts help your savings grow faster, especially when you’re not planning to use the money in the short term.

5. Explore Certificate of Deposits (CDs):

Certificates of Deposit (CDs) are low-risk savings instruments with fixed terms and higher interest rates than regular savings accounts. They lock in your money for a specified period, making them a good option for long-term savings goals.

6. Diversify Investments:

If you have long-term financial goals, consider diversifying your savings into different investment options such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and real estate. Diversification can potentially lead to higher returns and mitigate risks.

7. Take Advantage of Employer Benefits:

If your employer offers retirement savings plans like a 401(k) with matching contributions, take full advantage of it. Employer matches are essentially free money and can significantly boost your retirement savings.

8. Pay Off High-Interest Debts:

Prioritize paying off high-interest debts, such as credit card balances, to avoid accumulating unnecessary interest charges. Reducing debts can free up more money for savings and investments.

9. Track and Review Progress:

Regularly review your savings and investment progress. Set milestones and celebrate your achievements. Tracking your growth keeps you motivated and focused on your financial goals.

10. Stay Informed and Educated:

Stay updated on personal finance trends and investment opportunities. The more you know, the better financial decisions you can make. Attend financial workshops, read books, and follow reputable financial experts.

11. Avoid Impulsive Spending:

Practice mindful spending and avoid impulsive purchases. Before making a significant purchase, consider whether it aligns with your financial goals and if it’s worth the trade-off in potential savings.

12. Reevaluate and Adjust:

Life circumstances change, and so do financial goals. Reevaluate your savings plan regularly and make adjustments when needed. Be flexible and adapt your strategy as circumstances dictate.

4. Reduce Unnecessary Expenses

Reduce Unnecessary Expenses

Reducing unnecessary expenses is a crucial step for money management in improving your financial health and freeing up more money for savings and investments. Here are some practical tips to help you cut back on unnecessary spending:

1. Track Your Expenses:

Start by keeping track of all your expenses for a month. Use a budgeting app or simply jot down your expenses in a notebook for money management. This will give you a clear picture of where your money is going and identify areas where you can cut back.

2. Differentiate Between Needs and Wants:

Distinguish between essential needs and discretionary wants. Focus on covering necessities such as housing, utilities, groceries, and transportation before indulging in non-essential expenses like entertainment and luxury items.

3. Create a Realistic Budget:

Develop a budget that aligns with your financial goals. Allocate specific amounts for each category of expenses and be disciplined in sticking to it. Having a budget helps you control impulsive spending and fosters better money management.

4. Limit Eating Out and Takeout:

Cooking at home is often more cost-effective than dining out or ordering takeout. Reduce the frequency of eating out and try preparing meals in advance to save both money and time.

5. Cut Down on Subscription Services:

Review your monthly subscription services, such as streaming platforms, fitness apps, and magazines. Cancel the ones you rarely use or can do without. Consolidate subscriptions where possible to reduce overall costs.

6. Buy Generic Brands:

Opt for generic or store-brand products instead of expensive branded items. In many cases, generic products are of similar quality but come at a lower price.

7. Avoid Impulse Buying:

Before making a purchase, especially for non-essential items, give yourself some time to think it over. Avoid impulse buying and only make purchases after careful consideration.

8. Negotiate Bills and Contracts:

Contact your service providers and negotiate better deals on your cable, internet, or insurance bills. Loyalty discounts or promotions may be available, but you need to ask for them.

9. Use Coupons and Discounts:

Take advantage of coupons, discounts, and loyalty reward programs when shopping. Look for deals and compare prices before making major purchases.

10. Cut Back on Costly Habits:

Identify costly habits such as smoking, excessive drinking, or buying daily coffee from cafes. Cutting back on these habits not only saves money but can also lead to improved health.

11. Reduce Energy Consumption:

Lower your energy bills by being conscious of electricity and water usage. Turn off lights and appliances when not in use, and consider energy-efficient solutions for your home.

12. Borrow Instead of Buying:

For items you need only temporarily or infrequently, consider borrowing from friends, family, or neighbors instead of purchasing them.

13. Plan Shopping Trips:

Plan your shopping trips in advance and create a shopping list. Stick to the list and avoid making impulse purchases.

14. Explore Free or Low-Cost Entertainment:

Look for free or low-cost entertainment options such as local events, community activities, and public parks. Utilize libraries for books, movies, and other media instead of buying them.

15. Review Subscriptions and Memberships:

Regularly assess the value of your subscriptions and memberships. If you’re not using them as much as you thought, consider canceling or downgrading to a lower-cost plan.

By adopting these strategies and making a conscious effort to reduce unnecessary expenses & help for money management, you can free up more money to save, invest, or pay off debts. The key is to be consistent and disciplined in managing your finances, which will lead to improved financial stability and better control over your money.

5. Save and Invest Wisely

Save and Invest Wisely

Saving and investing wisely is essential for building wealth, achieving financial goals, and securing a stable financial future. Here are some valuable tips to help you save and invest your money management:

1. Start Early:

The power of compounding works best over time, so start saving and investing as early as possible. Even small amounts invested regularly can grow significantly over the long term.

2. Set Clear Financial Goals:

Establish specific and achievable financial goals. Determine the purpose of your savings and investments, whether it’s for retirement, buying a house, funding education, or any other long-term objective.

3. Create a Budget:

Develop a budget that includes savings and investment contributions. Allocating a portion of your income specifically for these purposes ensures that you prioritize your financial future.

4. Pay Yourself First:

When you receive your paycheck, transfer a portion of it directly into your savings and investment accounts. Treat this as a non-negotiable expense, just like any other bill.

5. Emergency Fund:

Build an emergency fund to cover unexpected expenses, such as medical emergencies or job loss. Aim to save at least three to six months’ worth of living expenses in a separate savings account.

6. Debt Management:

Before investing heavily, prioritize paying off high-interest debts. Eliminating debts helps free up more funds for saving and investing, and reduces financial stress.

7. Diversify Investments:

Spread your investments across different asset classes to diversify your portfolio. Diversification helps manage risk and can potentially lead to more stable returns.

8. Take Advantage of Employer Benefits:

Contribute to employer-sponsored retirement plans, such as 401(k) or pension plans, especially if your employer offers matching contributions. This is essentially free money that can boost your savings significantly.

9. Consider Tax-Advantaged Accounts:

Explore tax-advantaged investment accounts like IRAs (Individual Retirement Accounts) or HSAs (Health Savings Accounts). These accounts offer tax benefits that can maximize your savings.

10. Educate Yourself:

Take the time to educate yourself about different investment options and strategies. Understanding the risks and potential rewards helps you make informed decisions.

11. Avoid Timing the Market:

Trying to time the market and predict short-term fluctuations can be risky and often leads to suboptimal results. Focus on long-term investment strategies and stay committed to your financial goals.

12. Review and Rebalance:

Regularly review your investment portfolio and rebalance it if needed. Market conditions and your financial goals may change over time, so adjust your investments accordingly.

13. Avoid High-Fee Investments:

Be cautious of investments with high management fees and expenses. These costs can eat into your returns over time, impacting the growth of your investments.

14. Stay Calm During Market Volatility:

Investing involves ups and downs in the market. Avoid making impulsive decisions during periods of market volatility. Stay focused on your long-term goals.

15. Consult a Financial Advisor for money management

If you are unsure about your investment choices or need personalized guidance, consider consulting a reputable financial advisor. They can help create a tailored investment plan based on your risk tolerance and financial objectives.

By saving and investing wisely, you can build wealth, secure your financial future, and achieve your long-term goals. Consistency, patience, and sound financial decisions are the keys to successful saving and investing. Remember that every individual’s financial situation is unique, so customize your approach based on your specific circumstances and risk tolerance.

6. Maximize Retirement Contributions

Maximize Retirement Contributions

Maximizing retirement contributions is a crucial strategy to secure a comfortable and financially stable retirement. Here are some effective ways to make the most of your retirement savings:

1. Contribute to Employer-Sponsored Plans:

If your employer offers a retirement savings plan, such as a 401(k) or 403(b), take full advantage of it. Contribute as much as you can, especially if your employer provides a matching contribution. Employer matches are essentially free money that can significantly boost your retirement savings.

2. Understand Contribution Limits:

Be aware of the annual contribution limits for retirement accounts set by the government. As of 2023, the contribution limit for 401(k) plans is $19,500, with an additional catch-up contribution of $6,500 for individuals aged 50 and older. Maximize these limits if you can afford to do so.

3. Consider Roth IRAs:

Explore Roth IRAs (Individual Retirement Accounts) as an additional retirement savings option. Although contributions to Roth IRAs are not tax-deductible, withdrawals in retirement are tax-free, making them a tax-efficient option for retirement savings.

4. Utilize Health Savings Accounts (HSAs):

If you have access to a Health Savings Account (HSA), consider using it as a retirement savings tool. HSAs offer triple tax benefits – contributions are tax-deductible, earnings grow tax-free, and withdrawals for qualified medical expenses are tax-free. Additionally, after age 65, withdrawals for non-medical expenses are subject to income tax, similar to a traditional IRA.

5. Prioritize Retirement Savings in Your Budget:

Make retirement savings a top financial priority. Budget your expenses accordingly, ensuring that you allocate a significant portion of your income towards retirement contributions for effecetive money management.

6. Take Advantage of Catch-Up Contributions:

Once you turn 50, you become eligible for catch-up contributions to certain retirement accounts. These additional contributions allow you to save more as you approach retirement age.

7. Automate Contributions:

Set up automatic contributions to your retirement accounts. Automating savings ensures that you consistently save without the need for constant reminders or manual transfers.

8. Avoid Early Withdrawals:

Try to avoid withdrawing money from your retirement accounts before reaching retirement age. Early withdrawals may be subject to taxes and penalties, which can significantly diminish your savings.

9. Reevaluate and Adjust:

Regularly review your retirement savings plan and adjust it as needed. Reassess your financial goals and risk tolerance to ensure your investments align with your changing circumstances.

10. Seek Professional Advice for money management

If you’re unsure about investment choices or need personalized retirement planning, consult with a certified financial advisor. They can provide tailored advice based on your unique financial situation and retirement goals.

11. Stay Informed:

Stay updated on changes to retirement account rules and tax regulations. Being informed allows you to make educated decisions and take advantage of any new opportunities that may arise.

12. Utilize Windfalls Wisely:

If you receive unexpected windfalls, such as a bonus or tax refund, consider directing a portion of it towards your retirement savings to accelerate your progress.

By maximizing your retirement contributions and diligently saving for the future, you can create a solid financial foundation and enjoy a more secure retirement. It’s never too early or too late to start saving for retirement, so take action now and make your retirement savings a priority. The discipline and foresight you demonstrate today will pay off immensely in your golden years.

7. Clear High-Interest Debts

Clear High-Interest Debts

Clearing high-interest debts is a vital step of money management in achieving financial freedom and reducing financial stress. Here are some effective strategies to help you tackle and eliminate high-interest debts:

1. Prioritize High-Interest Debts:

Identify all your debts and prioritize paying off those with the highest interest rates first. High-interest debts, such as credit card balances, accumulate more interest over time, making them costlier to maintain.

2. Create a Debt Repayment Plan:

Develop a debt repayment plan that outlines how much you can afford to pay each month towards your debts. Consider using either the snowball method (paying off the smallest debt first) or the avalanche method (paying off the debt with the highest interest rate first).

3. Increase Your Monthly Payments:

Try to increase the amount you pay towards your high-interest debts each month. Even paying a little extra can make a significant difference in reducing the debt faster.

4. Use Windfalls to Pay Down Debt:

If you receive unexpected windfalls, such as a tax refund, bonus, or gift, consider using a portion of it to make extra payments towards your high-interest debts.

5. Consolidate or Refinance Debt:

Explore debt consolidation or refinancing options that offer lower interest rates. Consolidating high-interest debts into a single loan with a lower interest rate can make it easier to manage and save you money in the long run.

6. Negotiate with Creditors:

If you’re facing financial hardship, contact your creditors to discuss possible options. They may be willing to negotiate a lower interest rate, extend the repayment period, or offer a temporary forbearance to help you manage your debts.

7. Avoid Accumulating New Debt:

While paying off high-interest debts, avoid accumulating new debts. Be disciplined in your spending and focus on living within your means.

8. Cut Back on Discretionary Spending:

Temporarily cut back on non-essential expenses to free up more money for debt repayment. Redirect the money you save from cutting back towards your high-interest debts.

9. Explore Balance Transfer Offers:

If you have credit card debt, look for balance transfer offers that provide a low or 0% introductory interest rate. Transferring your high-interest credit card balance to a card with a lower rate can save you money on interest.

10. Seek Professional Advice:

If you find it challenging to manage your debts on your own, consider seeking advice from a credit counselor or financial advisor. They can provide guidance and support in creating a personalized debt repayment plan.

11. Celebrate Milestones:

Acknowledge and celebrate your progress as you pay off high-interest debts. Each milestone achieved brings you closer to becoming debt-free.

12. Stay Motivated:

Becoming debt-free is a journey that requires patience and determination. Stay motivated by visualizing the financial freedom and reduced stress that comes with being debt-free.

By following these strategies and committing to clearing high-interest debts, you can take control of your financial situation and pave the way for a more secure and debt-free future. Remember that every extra payment you make brings you closer to financial freedom, so stay persistent and focused on your debt repayment goals.

8. Seek Professional Advice for money management

Seek Professional Advice

Seeking professional advice is a wise decision when it comes to managing your finances and making important financial decisions. Here are some situations where seeking professional advice can be beneficial:

1. Financial Planning:

If you need help creating a comprehensive financial plan to achieve your short-term and long-term goals, a certified financial planner (CFP) can provide personalized advice based on your unique circumstances and objectives.

2. Investment Guidance:

Investing can be complex, and the financial markets can be unpredictable. A financial advisor can help you navigate the investment landscape, choose suitable investment options, and build a diversified portfolio aligned with your risk tolerance and financial goals.

3. Retirement Planning:

Planning for retirement requires careful consideration of various factors, such as projected expenses, Social Security benefits, and potential sources of retirement income. An advisor can help you create a retirement strategy that ensures you have enough savings to maintain your desired lifestyle throughout retirement.

4. Debt Management:

If you’re struggling with debt or need assistance in creating a debt repayment plan, a credit counselor can provide guidance and negotiation support with creditors to find the best solution for your financial situation.

5. Tax Planning:

Tax laws can be complex, and maximizing tax efficiency is essential to retain more of your income. A tax advisor can help you identify deductions, credits, and tax-saving strategies to minimize your tax liability.

6. Estate Planning:

For individuals with substantial assets or complex family situations, estate planning is essential to ensure your assets are distributed according to your wishes. An estate planning attorney can help you create wills, trusts, and other legal documents that protect your estate and ensure a smooth transfer of wealth.

7. Insurance Advice:

Choosing the right insurance coverage is critical to protect yourself and your family from unexpected events. An insurance advisor can assess your insurance needs and recommend appropriate policies that provide sufficient coverage.

8. Business and Entrepreneurship:

If you’re starting a business or running one, seeking advice from a financial consultant or business advisor can help you develop a solid financial plan, manage cash flow, and make strategic financial decisions.

9. Major Life Events:

During significant life events such as marriage, divorce, childbirth, or the death of a loved one, seeking financial advice can help you navigate the financial implications and plan for the future.

10. Complex Financial Situations:

If you have a complicated financial situation involving multiple income streams, investments, or assets, a financial advisor can help you streamline your finances and optimize your financial outcomes.

11. Education Planning:

If you’re saving for your children’s education, a financial advisor can help you choose the right education savings accounts (e.g., 529 plans) and develop a strategy to fund their educational expenses.

12. Business Succession Planning:

For business owners, a financial advisor can assist in creating a succession plan to ensure a smooth transition of ownership and management when the time comes to retire or sell the business.

Remember to choose a reputable and qualified professional who is transparent about their fees and has your best interests at heart. A good advisor will take the time to understand your goals, provide clear recommendations, and empower you to make informed financial decisions. Ultimately, seeking professional advice can provide peace of mind and enhance your financial well-being.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Money Management

What is money management?

Money management refers to the process of effectively managing your finances, including budgeting, saving, investing, and making informed financial decisions to achieve financial stability and meet your financial goals.

Why is money management important?

Effective money management is crucial for various reasons, including building wealth, avoiding debt, preparing for emergencies, funding retirement, and achieving financial independence.

How can I create a budget?

To create a budget, track your income and expenses, categorize your spending, set financial goals, and allocate your income accordingly. Use budgeting tools or apps to help you manage your finances & money management.

How much should I save from my income?

Aim to save at least 20% of your income, but the actual amount may vary depending on your financial goals, lifestyle, and financial obligations.

What is an emergency fund, and why do I need one?

An emergency fund is a savings buffer set aside for unexpected expenses or emergencies, such as medical bills or job loss. Having an emergency fund prevents you from going into debt during challenging times.

Should I pay off debts or save first?

It depends on your individual circumstances. Generally, it’s wise to pay off high-interest debts first, as they can be costly over time. However, also consider saving simultaneously to build an emergency fund and avoid accumulating new debts.

What are some effective strategies for reducing unnecessary expenses?

Strategies include tracking your spending, distinguishing between needs and wants, creating a realistic budget, cutting back on discretionary spending, and negotiating bills and contracts.

How can I start investing for the future?

Begin by educating yourself about money management different investment options and risk tolerance. Consider opening a retirement account, like a 401(k) or IRA, and explore low-cost, diversified investment vehicles, such as index funds or ETFs.

What is diversification, and why is it essential for investing?

Diversification involves spreading your investments across different asset classes to reduce risk. It helps to protect your portfolio from significant losses in case of a downturn in one particular investment.

How can I prepare for retirement?

To prepare for retirement, start saving early, contribute regularly to retirement accounts, invest wisely, review and adjust your retirement plan as needed, and seek advice from a financial advisor if necessary.

What are some common mistakes to avoid in money management?

Avoid living beyond your means, accumulating excessive debt, not having an emergency fund, neglecting retirement savings, and making impulsive financial decisions.

When should I seek professional financial advice?

Consider seeking professional financial advice when planning for major life events, managing complex financial situations, starting a business, dealing with debt problems, or if you need assistance with retirement planning and investment strategies.

One thought on “Money Management: 8 Tips for Mastering Your Finances”

Comments are closed.